Updated September 2013

Refereed articles, chapters, theses:


Lee PC, Bussie`re LF, Webber CE, Poole JH, Moss CJ. 2013 Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Biol Lett 9: 20130011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0011. Download. (395.79 kB).

Poole, J.H., Whyte, I. & Kahumbu, P. 2013. Loxodonta africana. In: The Mammals of Africa. Jonathon Kingdon, David Happold & Thomas Butynski (Eds.). Academic Press.

McComb, K., Shannon, G., Durant, S.M., Sayialel, K., Slotow, R., Poole, J., Moss, C. 2011. Leadership in elephants: The adaptive value of age. Proc. R. Soc. B published online 16 March 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0168: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/03/10/rspb.2011.0168.full.ht.

Poole, J.H., Lindsay, W.K., Lee, P.C. & Moss, C.J. 2011. Ethical approaches to elephant conservation. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Poole, J.H. 2011. The behavioral context of African elephant acoustic communication. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Poole, J.H. and Granli, P.K. 2011. Signals, gestures and behaviors of African elephants. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Poole, J.H., Lee, P.C., Njiraini, N. & Moss, C.J. 2011. Longevity, competition and musth: A long-term perspective on male reproductive strategies. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Lee, P.C., Poole, J.H., Njiraini, N. & Moss, C.J. 2011. Male social dynamics: Independence and beyond. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Mutinda, H.S., Poole, J.H., Moss, C. J. 2011. Decision-making and leadership in using the ecosystem. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Wasser, S., Poole, J., Lee, P., Lindsay, K. Dobson, A., Hart, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G., Granli, P., Morgan, B., Gunn, J., Alberts, S., Beyers, R., Chiyo, P., Croze, H., Estes, R., Gobush, K., Joram, P., Kikoti, A., Kingdon, J., King, L., Macdonald, D., Moss, C., Mutayoba, B., Njumbi, S., Omondi, P., Nowak, K. 2010. Elephants, Ivory, and Trade. Policy Forum, Science. 327: 1331-1332.

Bates, L.A., Handford, R., Lee, P.C., Njiraini, N., Poole, J.H., Sayialel, K., Sayialel, S., Moss, C.J., Bates, R. W. 2010. Why do African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) simulate oestrus? An analysis of longitudinal data. PLoS ONE www.plosone.org; 5:4: e10052 p. 1- 6.

Archie, E.A., Henry, T., Maldonado, J.E., Moss, C.J., Poole, J.H., Pearson, V.R., Murray, S., Alberts, S.C., Fleischer, R.C., 2010. Major histocompatibility complex variation and evolution at a single, expressed DQA locus in two genera of elephants. Immunogenetics: DOI 10. 1007/s00251-009-0413-8.

Poole, J and Granli, P. 2008. Mind and Movement: Meeting the Interests of Elephants. In: An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well Being of Elephants in Captivity. Eds. D. L. Forthman, L. F. Kane and P. Waldau. North Grafton MA: Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine's Center for Animals and Public Policy.

Poole, J.H and Moss, C. J. 2008. Elephant sociality and complexity: The scientific evidence. In: Elephants and Ethics: Toward a morality of Co-existence. C. Wemmer & K. Christen (Eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press.

Archie, E.A., Maldonado, J.E., Hollister-Smith, J.A., Poole, P.C., Moss, C.J., Fleischer, R.C., Alberts, S.C. 2008. Fine-scaled population genetic structure in a fission-fusion society. Molecular Ecology 17: 2666-2679.

Bates, L.A., Lee, P.C., Njiraini, N., Poole, J.H., Sayialel, K., Sayialel, S., Moss, C.J. Byrne, R.W. 2008. Do elephants show Empathy? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15, No. 10-11, pp. 204-25.

Bates, L.A., Poole, J.H. Byrne, R.W. 2008. Why study elephant cognition? Current Biology, Vol 18, No 13, R544-546.

Archie, E.A., Hollister-Smith, J.A., Poole, J.H., Lee, P.C., Moss, C.J., Maldonado, J.E., Fleischer, R.C., Alberts, S.C. 2007. Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants. Molecular Ecology, 16: 4128-4148.

Bates, L.A., Sayialel, C.N, Njiraini, N.W, Poole, J.H., Moss, C.J. & Byrne, R.W. 2007. African elephants have expectations about locations of out-of-sight family members. Biology Letters: doi: 1098/rsbl.2007.0529, 1-3.

Bates, L.A., Sayialel, C.N, Njiraini, N.W, Poole, J.H., Moss, C.J. & Byrne, R.W. 2007. Elephants classify human ethnic groups by odour and garment colour. Current Biology. Doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.09.060.

Hollister-Smith, J.A., Poole, J.H., Archie, E.A., Vance, E.A, Georgiadis, N.J., Moss, C.J., Alberts, S.C. 2007. Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour, 74: 287-296

O'Connell-Rodwell, C., Wood, J.D., Kinzley, C., Rodwell, T.C., Poole, J., & Puria, S. 2007. Wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecific seismic alarm calls. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122: 823-830.

Poole, J.H., Tyack, P.L., Stoeger-Horwath, A. & Watwood, S. 2006. Vocal imitation in African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana). Razprave IV. Rezreda SAZU, XLVII-3: 118-124.

Bradshaw, I.G.A., A.N. Schore, J.L. Brown, J.H. Poole & C. J. Moss. 2005. Elephant Breakdown. Social trauma: Early trauma and social disruption can affect the physiology, behaviour and culture of animals and humans over generations. Nature, 433: 807.

Poole, J.H., P. L. Tyack, A. S. Stoeger-Horwath & S. Watwood. 2005. Elephants are capable of vocal learning. Nature, 434: 455-456.

Slotow, R., G. van Dyke, J. Poole, B. Page & A. Klocke. 2000. Older bull elephants control young males. Nature, 408: 425-426.

Poole, J.H. 1999. Signals and Assessment in African Elephants: Evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour, 58:185-193.

Poole, J.H. 1998. An exploration of commonality between ourselves and elephants. Special Issue Etica & Animali. 9:85-110.

Dobson, A. P. and J. H. Poole 1998. Conspecific aggregation and conservation biology. In: Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology. T. Caro (Ed.). Oxford, Oxford University Press: pp.193-208.

Poole, J.H. 1994. Sex differences in the behavior of African elephants. In: The Differences Between the Sexes. R. Short & E. Balaban (Eds.). Cambridge University Press: pp. 331-346.

Poole, JH and A. P. Dobson. 1992. Ivory: Why the ban must stay! Conservation Biology 6: 149-151.

Dobson, A.P., G.M. Mace, J.H. Poole and R.A. Brett. 1991. Conservation biology: The ecology and genetics of endangered species. In: Genes in Ecology. R.J. Berry, T.J. Crawford & G.M. Hewitt (Eds.). The 33rd Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London: pp.405-429.

Poole, J.H. 1989. Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants. Anim. Behav. 37: 140-152.

Poole, J.H. 1989. Mate guarding, reproductive success and female choice in African elephants.
Anim. Behav. 37: 842-849.

Poole, J.H. and C.J. Moss. 1989. Elephant mate searching: Group dynamics and vocal and olfactory communication. In: The Biology of Large African Mammals in their Environment. P.A. Jewell & G.M.O. Maloiy (Eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Proceedings of Sym. Zool. Soc. Lond. 61:111-125.

Poole, J.H. and J.B. Thomsen, 1989. Elephants are not beetles: implications of the ivory trade for the survival of the African elephant. Oryx 23: 188-198.

Poole, J.H., K.B. Payne, W. Langbauer Jr, C.J. Moss. 1988. The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22:385-392.

Poole, J.H. 1987. Rutting behavior in African elephants: the phenomenon of musth. Behavior. 102: 283-316.

Poole, J.H., L.H. Kasman, E.C. Ramsay, B.L. Lasley. 1984. Musth and urinary testosterone concentrations in the African elephant, Loxodonta Africana. J. Reprod. Fert. 70: 255-260.

Moss, C.J. and Poole, J.H. 1983. Relationships and social structure in African elephants. In: Primate Social Relationships: an Integrated Approach. Hinde, RA (Ed.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford: pp 315-325.

Poole, J.H. 1982. Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Cambridge.

Poole, J.H. and C.J. Moss. 1981. Musth in the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Nature, 292:830-831.

Technical Reports:

Poole, J. & M. Reuling. 1997. A survey of elephants and other wildlife of the West Kilimanjaro Basin, Tanzania. Typescript Report. 66p.

Poole, J.H. & R.E. Leakey. 1996. Kenya. In: Decentralization and Biodiversity Conservation. Ernst Lutz & Julian Caldecott (Ed.). A World Bank Symposium: pp. 55-64.

Poole, J.H. 1994. Logistical the ethical considerations in the management of elephant populations through fertility regulation. In: Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Advances in Reproductive Research in Man and Animals. Charanjit Singh Bambra (Ed.). Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya: pp. 278-283.

Poole, J.H. 1993. Kenya's Initiatives in Elephant Fertility Regulation and Population Control Techniques. Pachyderm. 16:62-65.

Reuling, M., K. Mwathe, M Litoroh & J. Poole. 1992. A survey of Shimba Hills elephant population. Elephant Programme, Kenya Wildlife Service. Typescript. 23p.

Poole, JH, N Aggarwal, R Sinange, S Nganga, M Broton, I Douglas-Hamilton. 1992. The Status of Kenya's elephants, 1992. A report by the Kenya Wildlife Service and the Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing. Typescript. 60p.

Poole, J.H. 1991. Elephant Conservation Plan, Kenya. Kenya Wildlife Service, Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, Typescript.

Poole, J.H. 1990. Elephant Conservation in Eastern Africa: A Regional Overview. In Regional Perspectives and Situation Regarding Elephant Conservation and the Ivory Trade. Produced for Paris Donors Meeting. IUCN Typescript. 37p.

Poole, J.H. 1990. Elephant Conservation and Management. Annex 7b. In The Zebra Book. Policy Framework and Five-Year Investment Programme. Kenya Wildlife Service Publication. 54p.

Poole, J.H. 1989. The effects of poaching on the age structures and social and reproductive patterns of selected East African elephant populations. In: The Ivory Trade and the Future of the African Elephant. Volume II Technical Reports. The Ivory Trade Review Group. Prepared for the 7th CITES Conference of the Parties.

Articles, Book Chapters (Not refereed):

Poole, J.H. and Granli, P.K. 2005. The ethical management of elephants and the value of long-term field research. AAVS 63: 2-5

Poole, J. H. & P.K. Granli. 2004. The visual, tactile and acoustic signals of play in African savannah elephants. In Endangered Elephants, past present & future. Jayewardene, Jayantha. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Symposium on Human Elephant Relationships and Conflicts, Sri Lanka, September 2003. Biodiversity & Elephant Conservation Trust, Colombo. Pages 44-50.

Poole, J.H. 2000. Family reunions. In: The Smile of the Dolphin: Remarkable Accounts of Animal Emotions, Marc Bekoff (Ed.). Discovery Books, New York: pp. 22-23.

Poole, J. H. 2000. When Bonds are broken. In: The Smile of the Dolphin: Remarkable Accounts of Animal Emotions. Marc Bekoff (Ed.). Discovery Books, New York: pp. 142-143

Poole, J. H. 1997. A Description of African elephant vocalizations. Prepared for use by Discovery for the IMAX Elephant film. Typescript report. 65p.

Poole, J.H. 1996. The African Elephant. In: Studying Elephants. Kadzo Kangwana (Ed.). African Wildlife Foundation Technical Handbook Series: pp.1-8.

Poole, J.H. 1995. Conflict, compression and management: consequences for elephant behaviour [Abstract]. Excellence in wildlife stewardship through science and education. The Wildlife Society Second Annual Conference. September 12-17, 1995. Portland Oregon. Session 3 Symposium. Conservation of African and Asian elephants: wild and captive populations. p.103.

Poole, JH and A. P. Dobson.1992. Exploitation and recovery of African elephant populations. Elephant and Ivory Information Service. African Wildlife Foundation. Special Issue 19:1-3.

Poole, J.H. 1992. Musth in African elephants. In: Shoshani Jeheskel (Ed.). Elephants.
London: Simon & Schuster. Pp. 87-91.

Poole, J.H. and C.J. Moss. 1983. Musth discovered in the African elephant. African Elephant and Rhino Newsletter 1:8.

Popular Articles:

Poole, J.H. 2000. Trees of Dream Camp - Cultural uses by the Maasai. Basecamp Explorer AS.

Poole, J., Moss, C. & Sheldrick, D.1999. The sad plight of the Tuli elephants. The Last Word. Swara 22 (1): 32-33

Poole, J. H. 1999b. Ella's Easter Baby. Care for the Wild News. 15:24-25.

Poole, J.H. 1999. Voices of elephants. Sotokoto 8(2): 14-16.

Poole, J.H. 1998. Communication and social structure of African elephants. In: Elephants. Care for the Wild International, UK. pp 40-52.

Poole, J.H, 1997. Tuskless. Swara 20(3): 26.

Poole, J.H. 1992. Kenya's elephants - a very different story to tell. Swara 15(1): 29-31.

Poole, J.H. 1988. Elephants have more to say than meets the ear. Wildlife News. African Wildlife Foundation.

Poole, J.H., W. Njiraini, S. Sayialel. 1988. Elephant supersense. Komba. Wildlife Clubs.

Poole, J.H. 1988. Elephant trunk calls. Swara 11(6): 28-31.

Poole, J.H. 1987. Raging Bulls. Animal Kingdom 90 (6): 18-25.

Poole, J.H. 1987. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.


Poole, J.H. 1997. Elephants. Colin Baxter Photography, Grantown-on-Spey, Scotland.

Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York; Hodder & Stoughton, London.

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