Archie, E.A., Moss, C.J. and Alberts, S.C. 2005. The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants. Proc. R. Soc. B: 1-10.

Archie, E.A., Morrison, T.A., Foley, C.A.H., Moss, C.J. & Alberts, S.C. (2006) Dominance rank relationships among wild female African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour, 71: 117-127.

Charif, R.A., Ramey, R.R., Langbauer, W.R., Payne, K.B., Martin, R.B., Brown, L.M. 2005. Spatial relationships and matrilineal kinship in African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) clans. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 57:327-338.

Croze, H. 1972. The Seronera bull problem: I. The elephants. E. Afr. Wildl. J. 12:29-47.

Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.

Douglas-Hamilton, I. & O. Douglas-Hamilton. 1975. Among the Elephants. Viking Press, New York.

Hollister-Smith, J.A., Poole, J.H., Archie, E.A., Vance, E.A, Georgiadis, N.J., Moss, C.J. & Alberts, S.C. 2007. Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour 74: 287-296.

Langbauer Jr., W.R., K.B. Payne, R.A. Charif, L. Rapaport & F. Osborn. 1991. African elephants respond to distant playbacks of low-frequency conspecific calls. J. Experimental Biol. 157: 35-46.

Langbauer Jr., W.R. 2000. Elephant Communication. Zoo Biology. 19:425-445.

Lee, P.C. 1987. Allomothering among African elephants. Anim Behav. 35:278-91.

Lee, P.C. 1989. Family structure, communal care and female reproductive effort. Comparative Socioecology (ed. V. Standen and R.A. Foley), Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 323-340.

Lee, P.C. & C.J. Moss. 1999. The social context for learning and behavioural development among wild African elephants. In: Box, H.O. & Gibson, K.R. (eds) Mammalian Social Learning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 102-125.

McComb, K., C. Moss, S. Sayialel & L. Baker. 2000. Unusually extensive networks of vocal recognition in African elephants. Anim. Behav. 59:1103-9.

McComb, K., C. Moss, S. Durant, S. Sayialel, L. Baker. 2001. Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge. Science 292: 491-494.

Moss C.J. 1983 Oestrous behaviour and female choice in the African elephant. Behaviour 86:167-96.

Moss, C.J. & J.H. Poole. 1983 Relationships and social structure in African elephants. In: Primate Social Relationships: an Integrated Approach. Ed: Hinde, R.A. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford: pp 315-325.

Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories: Thirteen Years in the Life of an Elephant Family. William Morrow, New York.

Moss, C. and Lee, P. C. In Press. Female elephant social dynamics: Fidelity and flexibility. In C. J. Moss, H. J. Croze and P.C. Lee (eds.), Amboseli elephants: A long-term perspective on a long-lived mammal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mutinda, H.S., Poole, J.H., Moss, C. J. In press. Decision-making and Leadership in exploring the ecosystem. C. J. Moss, H. J. Croze and P.C. Lee In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. . (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Payne, K. 2003. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies. Eds: Frans B.M. de Waal and Peter L. Tyack. Harvard University Press.

Poole, J.H. and C.J. Moss. 1981. Musth in the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. Nature, 292:830-831.

Poole, J.H. 1987. Rutting behavior in African elephants: the phenomenon of musth. Behavior. 102: 283-316.

Poole, J.H. 1989. Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants. Anim. Behav. 37: 140-152.

Poole, J.H. 1989. Mate guarding, reproductive success and female choice in African elephants. Anim. Behav. 37: 842-849.

Poole, J.H., K.B. Payne, W.R. Langbauer Jr., C.J. Moss. 1988. The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22:385-392.

Poole, J.H. 1999. Signals and Assessment in African Elephants: Evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour 58:185-193.

Poole, J. & Moss, C. In press. Elephant sociality and complexity: The scientific evidence. In: Never Forgetting: Elephants and Ethics. C. Wemmer & K. Christen (Eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press

Sukumar, R. 1989. The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Turkalo, A. 1996. Studying forest elephants by direct observation in the Dzanga clearing: An update. Pachyderm. 22:59-60.

Wittemyer, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Getz, W. M. 2005. The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multitiered social structures. Animal Behaviour. 69: 1357-71.

Wittemyer, G. Getz, W.M.2007. Hierarchical dominance structure and social organization in African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour 73:671-681.


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African Elephant Bibliography.