A single slight dipping and raising movement of the head, combined with a reaching out and touching of the ground with the trunk. This display is observed in all age/sex groups is typically seen when an elephant is confronting a threat.

References: Poole & Granli 2021. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Head-Dip, Look-At, Trunk-Toward and occurs in the following context(s): Aggressive, Conflict & Confrontation