A combination call that consists of a Rumble followed by a Roar and then a Rumble without an inhalation (see Roar). Roars that occur during intense social excitement such as during a greeting ceremony, the birth of a calf, or in response to the arrival of a musth male may occur as a Rumble-Roar-Rumble. Similarly, the roars of a lost calf may often be in the form Rumble-Roar-Rumble, though the quality of these is different from those occurring in a social context.
A calf or juvenile elephant who is separated from its family typically begins to call with a series of Separated-Rumbles. As a lost calf becomes increasingly distressed, the Rumbling escalates to shrill Trumpeting or Roaring. The Roars emitted by a lost calf are typically concatenated calls in the form of a Roar-Rumble or Rumble-Roar-Rumble.
References: Poole 2011, Pardo et al 2019. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Roar, Rumble and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Affiliative, Calf Nourishment & Weaning, Conflict & Confrontation, Movement, Space & Leadership, Protest & Distress