A combination call that starts with a Roar (see Roar) and is followed without inhalation by a Rumble (see Rumble).

References: Stoeger-Horwath et al 2007; Poole 2011 Pardo et al 2019. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Roar, Rumble and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Calf Nourishment & Weaning, Conflict & Confrontation, Courtship, Protest & Distress


Context: Calf Nourishment & Weaning (1)

Walli is feeding on grass with two calves by her side, a newborn and a 5 year old male. The selection starts with the older calf exhibiting Solicit-Suckling and begging with a Grumbling-Suckle-Rumble. Just as he manages to Suckle, Walli moves forward, pushing her body into him in a Reject-Suck and he is thwarted. Meanwhile her infant also Solicits-Suckling on her left side, but just as she begins Suckling (Double-Suckling), Walli moves forward. The infant runs forward between her legs and she uses front foot to try to guide her back. She again walks forward blocking the five year old male and he complains. Then she Reject-Suck-Kick - swinging her back leg out at him unsuccessfully.

The male tries again (giving a Suckle-Grumble-Rumble and Cry-Rumble) and she stops and both suckle (Double-Suckle) - briefly because she then uses both front and hind leg to Reject-Suck-Kick and he gives a very complaining Roar-Rumble. She walks on and the 5 year male runs around the back and tries to access form the other side. The newborn sees that male coming and gives a couple of Husky-Cries and Runs-Away. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

Pascal is in musth and Qadija is in estrus (circled at the beginning). Pascal has been Guarding her all day. We have seen signs that they are about to Mate.

As this clip starts Pascal with a Penis-Erection Pursues Qadija who engages in an Estrous-Walk, Looking-Back. As Pascal gets closer she slows. With an Open-Mouth Pascal Reaches-Over and she Stands-to-Mate. Pascal Mounts her and appears to achieve intromission on the 7th thrust. Rumbling, a Snort-Rumble and a Roar-Rumble by other family members can be heard as the Mating-Pandemonium begins - based on what takes place later the Roar-Rumble is likely Quieroz. Qadija Kicks-Back at Pascal and other males gather around them reaching Trunk-Toward them. Pascal is Mounted for 25 seconds and Rumbling by family members continues.

As he dismounts Qadija rushes forward and gives an Estrous-Rumble which is answered by Pascal Musth-Rumbling and then another Estrous-Rumble by Qadija who then Head-Shakes and a Roar-Rumble by Queiroz. (Amboseli, Kenya)