Placing the tip of the trunk in or near a (usually) liquid substance (often urine) and then curling the trunk, raising it vertically and placing the tip on the paired orifices on the roof of the mouth leading to the vomeronasal organ. Flehmen may follow a Trunk-to-Genitals or Sniff-Urine. The vomeronasal organ plays an important role in processing chemical signals relevant to reproduction.
Juvenile, adolescent and adult males may be observed to Flehmen to female urine, estrous female urine and to both musth and non-musth male urine. Females may be observed to perform Flehmen to musth urine and to semen but this is less common.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Rasmussen et al 1982; Rasmussen et al 1993; Rasmussen 1998; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction