A relatively short (~1.5-3.5 seconds), noisy, pulsating Roaring call by an estrous female when pursued by a male. The Roar of an estrous female often begins as a series of short pulsated growling sounds before developing (or not) into a pulsating Estrous-Roar. This call has the immediate effect of attracting nearby and distant males, or alerting her Consort, or Guarding musth male, who may be dozing or otherwise occupied.
Estrous females are more likely to Roar in early and late estrus when they are chased by young, low-ranking non-musth males, than during peak estrus. A female in peak estrus is typically in Consort with a high-ranking Guarding musth male and, therefore, has less reason to call.
References: Poole 1982; Moss 1983; Poole 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction