A Trumpet given in protest to some unpleasant or disturbing. It may often be given in association with Head-Shaking and is a sign of an individual's annoyance with or disapproval of an individual or circumstance. We only have a couple of examples of what we would call Protest-Trumpets, one given in water, and they sound very different from one another. For the moment, therefore, the term Protest-Trumpet is a catch-all term for Trumpets given in the context of what appears to be disapproval, annoyance, indignation at some unpleasant or disturbing incident or circumstance, as opposed to an Alarmed-Trumpet given in response to something that causes fear or alarm. It remains to be seen whether such trumpets are statistically different from one another.

References: Poole & Granli 2021. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Social Play, Protest & Distress


Context: Protest & Distress (1)

Mama Little E, Little E (14 days old) and Lorato are out of sight in some bushes with a couple of young, troublesome males. A loud calf Roar is heard and we guess that Little E got frightened or hurt by one of the young males. Mama Little E and perhaps Lorato respond with a Coo-Rumbles. Mama Little E Backs-Towards the others trying to rescue Little E. She looks alarmed and she gives a loud Protest-Trumpet.

Allomother, Lorato, steps forward using a Guiding gesture with her trunk. She is with Little E. Lorato adopts a Suckle-Stance and Touch-Breast as if to show him where to Suckle. Mama Little E comes rushing forward. The male follows and Tusks Mama Little E and then put his Trunk-to-Genitals of, first, Mama Little E and then Lorato. Lorato Touch-Self looking apprehensive. The adolescent male Tusk Mama Little E again and then he runs trunk along his own tusk to Check-Tusk. He contemplates, then scratch ear and then Tusk Mama Little E up the bum a 3rd time. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context:Social Play (1)

Two males are playing in a water hole together. The male in the foreground swishes his trunk through the water and then the second male approaches him floating on his side and they Spar and we hear a loud Tusk-Clank. The male in the foreground Orients-Away and then lifts his head in a look of surprise, as if the other male has 'goosed' him or something underwater. He gives a short breathy Trumpet as if in surprise, which we have included as a Protest-Trumpet. (Amboseli, Kenya)