Pulsated-Trumpet

Longish trumpeting (~1-2 seconds in duration) that is expelled in a sequence of breathy pulses that are modulated in frequency contour. These trumpets are emitted as the elephant moves at a fast gait during highly spirited or exuberant play and is associated with Floppy-Running behavior.

References: Poole 1996; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Social Play

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (1)

Adolescent and young adult elephants are engaged in an exuberant game of crashing through the bushes up and down the banks of the lugga.

Most of the Pulsated-Trumpets are made by elephants out of view but toward the end we see typical Floppy-Running behavior of an adolescent female as she gives a Pulsated-Trumpet. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (2)

As an adolescent male Floppy-Runs at the car he lowers his head adopting a floppy-bodied Bow-Neck-Charge position and shakes his head from side to side Head-Waggling he gives a Pulsated-Trumpet and a Trumpet-Blast.

As he runs he Tail-Raises in excitement and as he stops he Kicks-Dust. As he departs he swings his back legs out as if to kick vegetation, but misses. Then he Floppy-Run off in another direction and gives another Pulsated-Trumpet.

One of the filmmakers is concerned that this is a serious charge so there is a lot of talking. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (3)

In a game of exuberant play, two calves engage in Floppy-Running, Pulsated-Trumpets, Nasal-Trumpets and run in and out of the Croton bushes. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (4)

In fading light and rather distant a group of elephants in exuberant play. This kind of play is contagious and elephants become very silly. There has been a lot of Floppy-Running and Trumpeting on the other side of the water hole.

In this clip a young female comes running in Pulated-Trumpeting and then Head-Shakes. Just after she arrives another female and her calf do the same. The second female is so wound up she turns around and Kicks-Back at the air. At some point here they is a Pulsated-Nasal-Trumpet, too. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (5)

Families of elephants are at KH4 water hole and many are playing. Calves Spar. A juvenile female aapproaches us Head-Waggling and gives a Nasal-Trumpet. She stops to consider us. Then she Head-Waggles away to join other young elephants and gives two Pulsated-Trumpet followed by another Nasal-Trumpet. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (6)

Familes have come together at KH4 water hole. Two juveniles are playing a game of what we call 'Imaginary Enemies' and are crashing through the Sporobilis consimilus grass with Chins-Up as if something really scary is in the grass. They give numerous Pulsated-Trumpets as they romp about. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (7)

Juvenile elephants are engaged in exuberant play of Imaginary Enemies and general cavorting about in the long grass. They have been Pulsated-Trumpeting for a while. Notice the antiphonal nature of these calls one calling and then another, as they seem to rev one another up. The contagious nature of Pulsated-Trumpeting during this type of play is typical.

In this clip the female closest to us finds a large stick which she picks up and throws twice high into the air, then she carries it about for a bit waving it in the air. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Social Play (8)

Juvenile elephants are engaged in exuberant play of Imaginary Enemies - Chin-Up, Tail-Raising, and general cavorting about in the long grass. They have been Pulsated-Trumpeting for a while. Notice the antiphonal nature of these calls one calling and then another, as they seem to rev one another up. The contagious nature of Pulsated-Trumpeting during this type of play is typical.

In this clip a juvenile female Charges our car in play giving a couple of Pulsated-trumpets as she does. Then she Kicks-Dust and Backs-Away with Chin-Up, Tail-Raising. She turns to go but Pirouettes still watching us. She mucks about head up and then down and another half Pirouette and then makes as if to take off toward the others, but instead Pirouettes again and Charges half toward us again, continuing her Pulsated-Trumpeting, Chin-Up and Tail-Raising. She does this back and forth a bit more and then finally takes off after the others who we can hear in the distance.

Note that there are a couple of Nasal-Trumpets in this clip also. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Protest & Distress (1)

A four year old male has become separated from his family. We see him stand with Periscope-Trunk and he does a bit of Head-Swinging as if trying to localize a sound. It is likely that someone has called him. He takes off running and giving shrill Pulsated-Trumpets that are typical of a lost or separated calf. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Attacking & Mobbing (1)

Provocadora Charges at us and we drive away. As she Charges she gives a Trumpet-Blast followed by a Pulsated-Trumpet. When she stops, we stop. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Pulsated-Trumpet

Context: Attacking & Mobbing (2)

Nomada leads her two calves in a Group-Advance towards us accompanied by a young male, who may or may not be a family male. She diverts and continues parallel to us, while the male comes closer and demonstrates to us by crashing into some dead branches and making a commotion. They continue on a Perpendicular-Walk and then Nomada turns sharply toward us and Charges while giving two Pulsated-Trumpets as she runs.

Notice her calves continue running straight ahead. Afterwards she emits a very low throbbing rumble. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)