An individual Advancing-Toward or Charging in the direction of an offending object (elephant, other animal, predator, human being) and at the end of the movement appears to ‘stub its toe’ and kicks up a cloud of dust in the direction of its antagonist. The elephant usually Stands-Tall and towers over its adversary. Occurs in all age/sex groups and may occur in a playful context.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972; Poole 1996: 77; Kahl & Armstrong 2000; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole & Granli 2011; O’Connell-Rodwell et al 2011 [Foot toss]. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Aggressive, Attacking & Mobbing, Conflict & Confrontation, Social Play