Sudden jolting or jerking of the body away from a frightening sound or movement. Sudden lifting up and back of the front portion of the body and sharp raising of the ears as the elephant jerks his or her body up and away from something frightening or surprising. Occurs in all age/sex groups.
References: Payne 2003; Poole & Granli 2003 [Body-Jolt]. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Avoidance, Submissive