Waggling of the head from side to side. This behaviour is observed during Social Play as a component of Solicit-Play and Sparring-Initiation and is associated with Lone and Object Play when an elephant considers an object of play. Head-Waggling may also follow a period of Contemplation, when the behavior appears to be an outward expression of internal thoughts and feelings. Head-Waggling may be observed in all age/sex groups, though most often in younger individuals.
References: Poole 1996:150, 151, 153, 155, 156; Poole 1998a; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Attentive, Lone & Object Play, Social Play