Raising the head during an excited, affiliative interaction such as a Little-Greeting, Greeting, Caressing, Coalition formation. It is typically associated with affiliative vocalizations, including, but not limited to the Little-Greeting-Rumble, Greeting-Rumble, Coo-Rumble, As-Touched-Rumble, Female-Chorus, Mating-Pandemonium, Coalition-Rumbling. This posture is different from Head-High in that the elephant's neck appears to be extended upwards and outwards so that the head appears more separate from the rest of the body. In the Head-High posture the elephant's neck is extended upward but not outward. Head-Raising is observed in all age/sex groups except adult males.
References: Poole 1996: 93; Payne, 2003; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Affiliative, Coalition Building, Conflict & Confrontation, Courtship