Rushing at another with head lowered and trunk curved under (to expose tusks) and goring or poking it with the tusks. This is a serious attack with intent to harm. Elephants may receive serious wounds and or die from such attacks. While Ramming in an Aggressive context most often involves adult males, females also engage in Ramming. A female was seen with a broken off female tusk sticking out of the side of her body. In a Social Play context Ramming is most likely to be instigated by immature and young adult males. Adult males and females may Ram vehicles.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: 130; Kahl & Armstrong 2000; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Aggressive, Social Play