An undulating Rumble of medium duration (~1.5-3.5 seconds) with an audibly detectable and distinctive complaining or whining tone. We refer to this as a Grumble-Rumble. This call is typically heard when the calling elephant, often a calf or younger elephant, has been thwarted or mistreated in some manner.
For example, when a mother denies a Begging calf access to her breast, the calf may escalate Begging-Rumbles into a more modulated or undulating and sometimes open-mouthed Grumble-Rumble. A calf gently Tusked, Head-Swiped or Pushed out of the way may Grumble-Rumble. We have also recorded a semi-captive elephant Grumble-Rumble when prevented by her caregivers from going to the roadside where she was accustomed to begging for food from tourists.
References: Poole 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Calf Nourishment & Weaning, Calf Reassurance & Protection, Submissive, Protest & Distress