The Ethogram Table is an overview of all of the Behaviors, Behavioral Constellations and Behavioral Contexts contained in The Elephant Ethogram. In the left column, we define 23 Contexts. In the middle and right columns we list the Behaviors and Constellations that occur in the different Contexts.

Many Behaviors and Constellations occur in more than one Context. In parentheses are the number of video examples of that Behavior/Constellation in that Context.

Clicking on a linked Behavior or Constellation will take you to the page where it is documented with a written and referenced description, one or more annotated video examples, and/or audio recordings.

Context Behaviors Behavioral Constellations
Advertisement & Attraction

Behaviors employed by adult males and adult females in the advertisement of sexual state and the attraction of, and search for, mates.

Bonding-Rumble (0), Casual-Stance (5), Chin-In (1), Ear-Brush (1), Ear-Folding (3), Ear-Slap (1), Ear-Wave (18), Ears-Stiff (2), Estrous-Roar (5), Estrous-Rumble (4), Estrous-Running-Rumble (1), Exaggerated-Splash-with-Foot (2), Female-Chorus-Rumble (6), Flehmen (11), Foot-Scuffing (3), Grasp-Tail (2), Head-High (1), Head-Raising (0), Head-Toss (2), J-Trunk (2), Musth-Rumble (21), Musth-Temporal-Gland-Secretion (5), Musth-Temporal-Gland-Swelling (8), Musth-Trunk-Wrinkle (4), Nasal-Throb (6), Open-Mouth (0), Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth (0), Penis-Erection (3), Periscope-Trunk (2), Place (2), Purposeful-Walk (0), Rapid-Ear-Flapping (0), Rubbing (2), Rumble (0), Rump-Present (1), Run-Toward (0), Sniff-Dung (4), Sniff-Ground (1), Sniff-Urine (4), Social-Trumpet (2), Tail-Swatting (2), Temporin (0), Trumpet (0), Trunk-Bounce-Drag (0), Trunk-Curl (5), Trunk-Dragging (10), Trunk-Flick-Down (2), Trunk-Suction (3), Trunk-to-Genitals (9), Trunk-to-Genitals-Suck (1), Trunk-to-Mouth (1), Trunk-Toward (2), Tusk-Ground (4), Urinating (1), Urine-Dribbling (11), Walk-Away (0), Walk-Toward (0), Estrous-Running-Rumble-Roar (0), Estrous-Walk (7), Female-Chorus (3), Listening (8), Mating-Pandemonium (7), Musth-Display (1), Musth-Walk (13), Roar-Rumble (1), Rumble-Roar (0), Rumble-Roar-Rumble (1), Simulate-Estrus (1), Tracking (9), Wariness (2),
Affiliative

Behaviors relating to the formation and maintenance of social bonds with other elephants.

Allo-Check-Tusk (1), Allo-Trunk-Sucking (0), As-Touched-Rumble (3), Back-Toward (6), Body-Contact (1), Bonding-Rumble (0), Defecating (0), Ear-Brush (9), Ear-Folding (2), Ear-Lifting (6), Ear-Secretion (3), Ears-Stiff (0), Eyes-Wide (0), Follow (0), Food-Sharing (1), Grasp-Tail (1), Grasp-Trunk (0), Greeting-Rumble (7), Head-Raising (7), Head-Rub (0), Head-Shaking (3), Lean (0), Lifting (1), Little-Greeting-Rumble (13), Nasal-Throb (0), Nasal-Trumpet (1), Open-Mouth (2), Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth (0), Orient-Away (0), Orient-Toward (0), Pirouette (0), Rapid-Ear-Flapping (4), Reach-Touch (0), Rest-Head (2), Rev (1), Run-Toward (0), Sashay (2), Snort (0), Social-Rubbing (6), Social-Trumpet (2), Tail-Raising (0), Temporin (3), Touch-Self (2), Trumpet (0), Trunk-to-Body (0), Trunk-to-Ear (1), Trunk-to-Face (3), Trunk-to-Genitals (4), Trunk-to-Mouth (24), Trunk-Twining (0), Tusk-Clank (0), Urinating (1), Walk-Toward (0), Yawn (0), Bonding-Ceremony (0), Conciliation (9), Contagion (6), Greeting-Ceremony (10), Guiding (0), Helping (1), High-Fiving (0), Little-Greeting (3), Remove-Foreign-Object (0), Rumble-Roar-Rumble (0), Rumble-Snort-Rumble (0), Snort-Trumpet (0), Solicit-Food (1), Solicit-Help (0), Trunk-Touch (0),
Aggressive

Behaviors employed to intimidate, threaten or attack other elephants.

Advance-Toward (13), Aggressive-Whoosh (0), Bow-Neck (0), Bush-Bashing (0), Check-Temporin (0), Check-Tusk (5), Chin-Out (7), Circus-Pose (2), Displacement-Feeding (1), Displacement-Grooming (1), Ear-Folding (13), Ear-Slap (9), Ear-Spreading (0), Ear-Wave (0), Foot-Scuffing (0), Forward-Trunk-Swing (2), Head-High (3), Head-Shaking (2), Head-Swipe (5), Kick-Dust (0), Lean (0), Look-At (0), Look-Back (0), Lunge (5), Musth-Rumble (1), Musth-Trunk-Wrinkle (0), Open-Mouth (1), Orient-Toward (2), Prolonged-Pursuit (4), Purposeful-Walk (0), Pushing (9), Ramming (2), Reaching-High (0), Rest-Head (0), Rumble (0), Run-After (4), Sashay (0), Slap (1), Supplant (1), Threat-Rumble (0), Throw-Debris (0), Trumpet-Blast (1), Trunk-Bounce-Drag (1), Trunk-Dragging (0), Trunk-Push-Down (0), Tusk-Clank (4), Tusk-Ground (0), Tusking (3), Attain-Higher-Ground (2), Bow-Neck-Advance-Toward (1), Bow-Neck-Charge (0), Charge (1), Coalition (6), Dueling (6), Escalated-Contest (2), Group-Advance (0), Group-Charge (0), Head-Dip-Touch-Ground (0), Musth-Display (0), Musth-Walk (0), Parallel-Walk (3), Redirected-Aggression (1), Standing-Tall (1),
Ambivalent

Behaviors engaged in when an individual has simultaneous tendencies to perform two incompatible activities, such as fight or flight.

Adorn-Body (0), Check-Temporin (0), Check-Tusk (2), Displacement-Feeding (0), Displacement-Grooming (3), Ear-Spreading (1), Foot-Lifting (3), Foot-Swinging (2), J-Trunk (1), Rumble (0), Touch-Self (3), Trunk-Curled-Under (0), Trunk-Flick-Down (0), Trunk-Sucking (4), Trunk-Twisting (4), Back-Bowing (0), Displacement Behavior (0), Waiting (1),
Attacking & Mobbing

Behaviors employed by an elephant, or a group of elephants acting cooperatively, to advance upon, harass or attack a non-elephant threat.

Advance-Toward (6), Bow-Neck (0), Bush-Bashing (3), Ear-Folding (0), Ear-Spreading (3), Foot-Scuffing (1), Forward-Trunk-Swing (4), Head-Butt (1), J-Trunk (2), Kick-Dust (6), Prolonged-Pursuit (0), Purposeful-Walk (0), Reaching-High (0), Rumble (0), Sashay (1), Throw-Debris (0), Trumpet (0), Trumpet-Blast (10), Trunk-Bounce (1), Trunk-Bounce-Drag (5), Trunk-Coiled (0), Trunk-Curled-Under (0), Trunk-Dragging (0), Bow-Neck-Advance-Toward (5), Bow-Neck-Charge (1), Group-Advance (10), Group-Charge (6), Movement-Initiation (1), Phalanx (0), Tracking (0), Trunk-Touch (0),
Attentive

Behaviors employed to attend to the actions of other elephants or to non-threatening incidents in the environment, or the contemplation of such actions or incidents.

Casual-Stance (4), Check-Tusk (0), Circus-Pose (1), Ear-Spreading (0), Ears-Stiff (0), Exaggerated-Walk (8), Explore-Touch-Foot (9), Explore-Touch-Mouth (0), Explore-Touch-Trunk (17), Eye-Blinking (2), Eyes-Wide (2), Foot-Lifting (0), Foot-Swinging (3), Head-Shaking (7), Head-Waggling (5), Horizontal-Trunk (2), J-Trunk (6), Legs-Crossed (1), Look-At (2), Look-Back (1), Nose-Picking (0), Periscope-Trunk (8), Rumble (0), Sniff-Dung (0), Sniff-Ground (4), Sniff-Urine (0), Test-Substrate (5), Trunk-Flick-Down (8), Trunk-Sucking (5), Trunk-Toward (4), Trunk-Tuck (7), Trunk-Twisting (0), Contemplating (4), Displacement Behavior (0), Freezing (1), Listening (11), Tracking (0), Waiting (1),
Avoidance

Behaviors employed to evade actual or perceived dangers posed by non-elephant threats.

Back-Away (2), Ear-Flap-Slide (1), Ear-Slap (1), Jolt (2), Look-Back (6), Orient-Away (0), Retreat-From (3), Rumble (0), Snort (3), Tail-Raising (7), Back-Bowing (0), Full-Retreat (1), Movement-Initiation (2), Panic-Running (6), Rear-Guard (4),
Birth

Behavior engaged in by a newborn, its family members or nearby elephants during, or within 24 hours prior to, or after, parturition, that relate to the birth.

Adorn-Body (1), Back-Toward (0), Bonding-Chorus (0), Coo-Rumble (0), Defecating (0), Ear-Folding (0), Ear-Lifting (0), Ears-Stiff (0), Eat-Afterbirth (3), Eyes-Wide (0), Foot-Nudge (0), Husky-Cry (0), Lifting (0), Mounting (0), Open-Mouth (0), Pirouette (0), Pulling (0), Rapid-Ear-Flapping (0), Reach-Over (0), Roar (0), Rumble (0), Scrape-Ground (0), Sheltering (0), Social-Trumpet (0), Suckle-Stance (0), Trumpet (0), Trunk-to-Body (0), Trunk-to-Face (0), Trunk-to-Genitals (0), Trunk-to-Infant-at-Breast (0), Trunk-to-Mouth (0), Trunk-Toward (0), Urinating (0), Walk-Wait (0), Adult-Intervention (0), Allomother-Intervention (0), Bonding-Ceremony (0), Caressing (0), Helping (0), High-Fiving (0), Shepherding (0), Waiting (0),
Calf Nourishment & Weaning

Behaviors engaged in by mother and calf to meet the nutritional requirements of the calf and during the process of weaning.

Allo-Suckling (4), Begging-Rumble (7), Body-Nudge (1), Coo-Rumble (3), Cry (2), Double-Suckling (11), Ears-Stiff (0), Eye-Blinking (0), Food-Sharing (3), Food-Stealing (0), Foreleg-Block (1), Grasp-Breast (0), Grasp-Leg (1), Grasp-Tail (0), Grasp-Trunk (0), Grumble-Rumble (8), Head-Swipe (2), Husky-Cry (0), Kick-Back (4), Penis-Erection (1), Periscope-Trunk (1), Pinch-Genitals (3), Resting-Trunk (0), Roar (3), Rumble (0), Suckle-Stance (9), Suckling (13), Tail-Swatting (1), Trunk-to-Genitals (3), Trunk-to-Infant-at-Breast (15), Tusking (2), Walk-Away (0), Walk-Toward (0), Allomothering (0), Cry-Rumble (6), Grumble-Rumble-Cry-Grumble-Rumble (0), Guiding (4), Husky-Cry-Roar-Rumble (0), Reject-Begging (0), Reject-Suckle (5), Roar-Rumble (1), Rumble-Cry-Rumble (0), Rumble-Roar-Rumble (2), Solicit-Food (5), Solicit-Suckling (13), Suckle-Face (6), Trunk-Touch (0),
Calf Reassurance & Protection

Behaviors employed to defend, protect, help, guide, comfort or console calves, or in calf solicitation of such actions.

Alarmed-Trumpet (3), Allo-Trunk-Sucking (1), Back-Toward (2), Baroo-Rumble (1), Call-Calf-Rumble (3), Carry (0), Comfort-Suckling (6), Coo-Rumble (6), Digging (0), Ear-Lifting (0), Ear-Spreading (3), Follow (1), Foot-Nudge (1), Grasp-Tail (2), Grasp-Trunk (0), Grumble-Rumble (0), Head-Shaking (4), Husky-Cry (12), Kick-Back (1), Lifting (6), Look-Back (0), Mounting (1), Open-Mouth (0), Orient-Toward (1), Pulling (5), Pushing (1), Retrieve (0), Rev (1), Roar (0), Rumble (0), Run-After (1), Scrape-Ground (2), Separated-Rumble (0), Sheltering (6), Tail-Raising (1), Tail-Swatting (2), Trumpet (0), Trumpet-Blast (1), Trunk-Nudge (3), Trunk-Sweep (0), Trunk-to-Body (0), Trunk-to-Face (2), Trunk-to-Genitals (9), Trunk-to-Mouth (9), Trunk-Toward (1), Walk-Away (0), Walk-Toward (0), Walk-Wait (1), Adult-Intervention (0), Allomother-Intervention (9), Allomothering (0), Babysitting (0), Caressing (9), Guiding (6), Helping (7), Kidnap (1), Maintain-Proximity (0), Remove-Foreign-Object (0), Shepherding (19), Snort-Trumpet (1), Solicit-Help (0), Trunk-Touch (0), Waiting (6),
Coalition Building

Behaviors employed in the formation of a defensive coalition.

Back-Toward (4), Bonding-Chorus (0), Bonding-Rumble (1), Coalition-Rumbling (1), Defecating (1), Ear-Flap-Slide (1), Ear-Folding (0), Ear-Slap (1), Head-Raising (2), Look-Back (1), Open-Mouth (2), Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth (1), Periscope-Trunk (2), Purposeful-Walk (0), Rapid-Ear-Flapping (1), Reach-Touch (2), Reaching-High (0), Roaring-Rumble (0), Rumble (0), Run-Toward (0), Social-Trumpet (3), Tail-Raising (1), Temporin (0), Trumpet (0), Trunk-Sweep (1), Trunk-to-Mouth (4), Trunk-Twining (1), Tusk-Clank (0), Urinating (0), Walk-Away (0), Walk-Toward (0), Bonding-Ceremony (1), Bunching (3), Coalition (0), Coalition-Calling (0), End-Zone-Dance (1), Group-March (7), Guiding (0), High-Fiving (4), Perpendicular-Walk (8), Phalanx (0), Snort-Trumpet (0), Trunk-Touch (0),
Conflict & Confrontation

Behaviors employed to signal hostility toward a perceived non-elephant threat.

Adorn-Body (0), Alarmed-Trumpet (2), Bow-Neck (1), Displacement-Feeding (1), Displacement-Grooming (6), Ear-Folding (0), Ear-Secretion (2), Ear-Spreading (9), Ears-Stiff (0), Exaggerated-Walk (0), Foot-Scuffing (0), Foot-Swinging (2), Forward-Trunk-Swing (0), Head-Dip (1), Head-Raising (0), Head-Shaking (7), Head-Swinging (9), J-Trunk (1), Kick-Dust (2), Look-At (1), Orient-Toward (1), Roaring-Rumble (0), Rumble (0), Sashay (0), Scrape-Ground (0), Snort (3), Temporin (1), Throw-Debris (1), Touch-Self (3), Trumpet (0), Trunk-Toward (2), Attain-Higher-Ground (2), Displacement Behavior (4), Head-Dip-Touch-Ground (8), Roar-Rumble (0), Rumble-Roar (0), Rumble-Roar-Rumble (0), Snort-Trumpet (0), Standing-Tall (21), Trunk-Touch (0),
Courtship

Behaviors engaged in by adult male and female elephants during courtship, consortship and mating.

Bonding-Rumble (0), Defecating (0), Displacement-Feeding (0), Displacement-Grooming (0), Driving (2), Dust-with-Semen (0), Estrous-Running-Rumble (0), Female-Chorus-Rumble (1), Follow (0), Grasp-Leg (0), Head-Raising (0), Kick-Back (3), Mating (6), Mounting (2), Musth-Rumble (1), Musth-Trunk-Wrinkle (0), Nasal-Throb (0), Penis-Erection (1), Pushing (1), Rapid-Ear-Flapping (1), Reach-Over (3), Rest-Head (1), Rumble (0), Rump-Present (1), Run-After (0), Run-Away (0), Sniff-Semen (0), Social-Trumpet (0), Standing-to-Mate (1), Tail-Swatting (1), Temporin (1), Trunk-to-Genitals (0), Walk-Away (0), Walk-Toward (0), Walk-Wait (0), Back-Bowing (0), Bonding-Ceremony (0), Chase (12), Consorting (3), Estrous-Running-Rumble-Roar (0), Estrous-Walk (0), Guarding (10), Maintain-Proximity (2), Mating-Pandemonium (0), Musth-Display (0), Musth-Walk (0), Post-Copulatory-Stance (1), Roar-Rumble (0), Solicit-Guarding (4), Trunk-Touch (0), Waiting (1), Wariness (0),
Death

Behavioral responses to a dying elephant or the investigation of, or intervention with, the body, carcass or bones of a dead elephant.

Back-Toward-Carcass (0), Carry-Bone (2), Carry-Carcass (0), Cover-Carcass (0), Feed-Carcass (0), Flehmen-Carcass (1), Lift-Carcass (1), Mount-Carcass (1), Mouth-Carcass (0), Pull-Carcass (2), Scrape-Ground (0), Silence (0), Step-On (0), Touch-Carcass-with-Foot (2), Touch-Carcass-with-Head (0), Touch-Carcass-with-Trunk (3), Trunk-Toward-Carcass (2), Guard-Carcass (0), Mourn (3), Object-Play (0),
Foraging & Comfort Technique

Methods or techniques employed by elephants to achieve comfort or to feed effectively on particular types of vegetation or species of plant.

Adorn-Body (0), Bend-Down-Bite-Vegetation (4), Bite-off-Dirt (0), Blow (1), Break-Sapling (1), Carry (0), Coprophagia (1), Dig-Minerals (1), Dig-Water (1), Digging (0), Dust-Wound (2), Dusting (10), Ear-Swat (2), Fell-Tree (3), Filter-Water (0), Food-Sampling (2), Food-Sharing (6), Food-Stealing (7), Foot-Splashing (0), Grasp-Branch-Bite (1), Grasp-Branch-Break-with-Foot (1), Grasp-Branch-Break-with-Tusk (5), Grasp-Break-Branch (7), Grasp-Grass-Slice-with-Foot (1), Grasp-Kick-Grass (3), Grasp-Seedling-Pull (3), Grasp-Seedling-Slice-with-Foot (9), Grasp-Water-Plant-Pull (1), Grasp-Water-Plant-Slice-with-Foot (1), Guide-Branch (1), Head-Toss (1), Kick-Grass (1), Nose-Picking (4), Orient-Away (1), Pack-Grass (1), Pharyngeal-Pouch-Suck (1), Pluck-Branchlets (0), Pluck-Leaves (1), Pluck-Mushrooms (1), Pluck-Object (1), Pluck-Seed-Pods (7), Plunge (1), Rip-Grass (4), Roll-Tree (4), Rub-off-Dirt (3), Rubbing (25), Scrape-Ground (1), Scratch-Foot-Sole (1), Scratch-with-Foot (5), Scratch-with-Object (5), Scratch-with-Tail (1), Scratch-with-Trunk (15), Scratch-with-Tusk (2), Scrub-off-Thorns (2), Shake-off-Dirt (1), Shake-Tree (3), Step-On-Break-Sapling (1), Step-On-Sapling-Slice-With-Foot (1), Stow-Branch (2), Strip-Bark (7), Strip-Branch (0), Sweep-off-Dirt (9), Tail-Fly-Swatting (1), Tail-Swatting (1), Thermoregulatory-Ear-Flapping (3), Touch-Wound (1), Trunk-Curl-Squeeze-Rip-Grass (1), Trunk-Fly-Swatting (1), Trunk-Squirt (2), Trunk-Sucking (1), Trunk-Suction (0), Tusk-Ground (3), Uproot-Forb (1), Wash-Water-Plants (4), Browsing-Technique (0), Comfort-Technique (0), Foraging-Technique (0), Solicit-Food (0), Tool-Use (0),
Lone & Object Play

Behaviors employed when playing alone or with an object that involve exaggerated, loose, or floppy movements.

Adorn-Body (2), Carry-Bone (0), Clamber (0), Explore-Touch-Foot (1), Explore-Touch-Mouth (0), Explore-Touch-Trunk (0), Flop-Trunk-On-Head (0), Head-Shaking (0), Head-Waggling (0), Kick-Back (0), Pharyngeal-Pouch-Suck (1), Silly-Trunk (3), Sitting (0), Splash-Submerge (1), Spray-Water (0), Squeak (0), Squelch (0), Submerge (0), Throw-Debris (1), Trumpet (0), Trunk-Sucking (0), Object-Play (14)
Maintenance

Behaviors or activity states (excluding interaction) employed by elephants for basic subsistence. 

Bathing (5), Blow (1), Clamber (2), Defecating (0), Drinking (14), Dusting (0), Legs-Crossed (1), Lie-Down (4), Moving-While-Feeding (12), Mud-Splashing (9), Mud-Wallowing (7), Penis-Erection (3), Resting (7), Resting-Trunk (0), Silly-Trunk (0), Sneeze (2), Snorkel (2), Standing (1), Steady-with-Trunk (1), Swimming (3), Thermoregulatory-Ear-Flapping (0), Unnatural-Gait (2), Urinating (3), Walking (20), Yawn (2), Browsing (0), Comfort-Activity (0), Feeding (0), Grazing (2), Slide (1),
Movement, Space & Leadership

Behaviors involved in maintaining spatial proximity, initiating group movement or influencing its timing, direction or form.

Body-Nudge (2), Cadenced-Rumble (4), Contact-Rumble (7), Displacement-Object-Play (1), Ear-Flap-Slide (19), Ear-Slap (4), Follow (0), Foot-Lifting (0), Foot-Swinging (4), Grasp-Trunk (0), Kick-Back (8), Legs-Crossed (0), Lets-Go-Rumble (13), Look-Back (0), Nasal-Trumpet (1), Purposeful-Walk (0), Pushing (13), Rumble (0), Tail-Swatting (6), Trunk-Tuck (0), Walk-Away (0), Walk-Toward (0), Walk-Wait (2), Body-Axis-Pointing (0), Contact-Calling (0), Guiding (0), Intention-Movement (0), Lets-Go-Stance (0), Maintain-Proximity (0), Movement-Initiation (0), Procession (0), Rumble-Roar-Rumble (0), Shepherding (0), Waiting (10),
Novel & Idiosyncratic

Novel or invented behaviors or those peculiar to an individual or group.

Allo-Trunk-Sucking (1), Blow-Bubbles (2), Circus-Pose (6), Croaking (0), Pharyngeal-Pouch-Suck (0), Squeak (2), Squeal-Trumpet (1), Squelch (2), Stand-Over-Bush (14), Tail-Swatting (2), Truck-Like-Call (0), Adult-Intervention (0)
Protest & Distress

Behaviors, primarily vocalizations, given when in pain, or when complaining or protesting at some perceived wrong.

Bark (0), Baroo-Rumble (3), Grumble-Rumble (6), Head-Shaking (1), Husky-Cry (8), Open-Mouth (2), Protest-Trumpet (1), Roar (21), Rumble (0), Separated-Rumble (4), Social-Trumpet (1), Trumpet (0), V8-Rumble (5), Walk-Toward (0), Cry-Rumble (0), Group-Charge (0), Grumble-Rumble-Cry-Grumble-Rumble (0), Husky-Cry-Roar-Rumble (0), Roar-Rumble (0), Rumble-Roar (2), Rumble-Roar-Rumble (0), Trunk-Touch (0),
Social Play

Behaviors employed in play in which individuals engage in exaggerated, loose, or floppy movements, running when there is no reason to flee nor object to attain, engaging in sexual behavior without coitus, fighting in friendly encounters that avoid injury.

Adorn-Body (0), Allo-Check-Tusk (2), Back-Toward (0), Bathing (0), Bite-Trunk (2), Blow-Bubbles (1), Bow-Neck (1), Bush-Bashing (3), Check-Temporin (1), Check-Tusk (2), Chin-Out (4), Circus-Pose (4), Clamber (4), Climb-Upon (4), Displacement-Feeding (0), Displacement-Grooming (0), Driving (1), Ear-Spreading (1), Ears-Stiff (0), Eyes-Wide (1), Flop-Trunk-On-Head (0), Follow (0), Foot-Forward (0), Foot-Scuffing (1), Forward-Trunk-Swing (3), Grasp-Leg (3), Grasp-Tail (3), Grasp-Trunk (1), Grasp-Tusk (2), Head-Dip (3), Head-Shaking (3), Head-Waggling (7), Kick-Back (5), Kick-Dust (1), Kneel-Down (3), Lean (2), Lie-Down (3), Lunge (2), Mounting (16), Nasal-Trumpet (2), Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth (5), Penis-Erection (1), Periscope-Trunk (2), Pirouette (2), Play-Trumpet (6), Protest-Trumpet (1), Pulsated-Trumpet (8), Pushing (9), Ramming (1), Reach-Over (15), Rest-Head (0), Rumble (0), Rump-Present (3), Run-After (4), Run-Away (2), Sashay (1), Scrape-Ground (1), Sitting (1), Slap (0), Snorkel (3), Snort (1), Social-Rubbing (1), Splash-Submerge (2), Splash-With-Foot (1), Splash-with-Trunk (8), Spray-Water (2), Step-On (1), Submerge (8), Tail-Raising (2), Tail-Swatting (4), Temporin (2), Throw-Debris (1), Touch-Self (1), Touch-Trunk-Tips (2), Trump (1), Trumpet (0), Trumpet-Blast (4), Trunk-Curled-Under (1), Trunk-Flick-Down (0), Trunk-Push-Down (1), Trunk-Sucking (3), Trunk-to-Body (1), Trunk-to-Face (1), Trunk-to-Genitals (5), Trunk-to-Mouth (3), Trunk-Twining (5), Tusk-Clank (2), Tusk-Ground (2), Tusking (6), Walk-Away (1), Walk-Toward (2), Back-Bowing (0), Bow-Neck-Charge (2), Charge (1), Charge-Kneel-Down (1), Conciliation (2), Floppy-Running (11), Helping (2), Solicit-Play (0), Solicit-Sparring (0), Sparring (26), Sparring-Initiation (1), Standing-Tall (0), Trunk-Touch (0),
Submissive

Behaviors employed to avoid aggression and/or injury by other elephants.

Back-Away (8), Back-Toward (5), Check-Temporin (0), Chin-Out (1), Ear-Folding (1), Ears-Back (0), Foot-Lifting (1), Grumble-Rumble (0), Head-High (1), Head-Low (0), Head-Shaking (1), Jolt (0), Look-Back (4), Open-Mouth (0), Orient-Away (9), Periscope-Trunk (2), Retreat-From (18), Roar (0), Rumble (0), Rump-Present (1), Run-Away (4), Skirt-Around (0), Snort (1), Supplant (8), Tail-Swatting (3), Trunk-Toward (1), V8-Rumble (0), Queue-Up (3), Trunk-Touch (0),
Vigilance

Behaviors employed to attend to possible danger posed by potential predators.

Chin-Up (6), Comment-Rumble (1), Displacement-Feeding (0), Displacement-Grooming (0), Ear-Spreading (0), Ears-Stiff (5), Eye-Blinking (0), Eyes-Wide (2), Foot-Lifting (3), Foot-Swinging (4), Head-Swinging (4), J-Trunk (5), Look-At (1), Look-Back (0), Periscope-Trunk (18), Rumble (0), Tail-Raising (1), Touch-Self (6), Trunk-Curled-Under (0), Trunk-Flick-Down (2), Trunk-Sucking (0), Trunk-Toward (7), Walk-Away (0), Apprehensive (1), Bunching (0), Contemplating (6), Freezing (8), Listening (8), Snort-Rumble (0), Stand-Guard (1), Trunk-Touch (0),