The term Urinating refers to normal elimination as well as social or sexual responses. Normal elimination may stimulate others to Urinate. For instance when a group wakes up from Resting, most individuals may Urinate and Defecate.

In an Advertisement & Attraction or Courtship context, such as during Trunk-to-Genitals, Female-Chorus or Mating-Pandemonium, female adults, adolescents and juveniles will typically Urinate when a male, particularly one in musth, uses his trunk to touch or sniff her genitals, in response to the arrival of a musth male in the group, or during or following a Mating.

Extreme social arousal such as during High-Fiving, Greetings, or a variety of other Bonding-Ceremonies also stimulates female adults, adolescents and juveniles to Urinate. During these sexual and social contexts Urinating is typically associated with vocalising, and several females may Urinate simultaneously.

References: Poole 1982: 37; Moss 1988; Poole et al 1988; Poole 1996: 275; Poole & Granli 2003. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Affiliative, Birth, Coalition Building, Maintenance


Context: Maintenance (1)

Good example of a young adult male Urinating. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)


Context: Maintenance (2)

Adolescent female Urinating. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)


Context: Maintenance (3)

An adult female pauses to Urinate and a musth male with a wide streak of Temporal-Gland -Secretion tests her urine and performs Flehmen. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (1)

Pat Derby, Ruby and others come together with a Purposeful-Walk. As they approach one another we hear deep Greeting-Rumbles and they begin Rapid-Ear-Flapping. A young female opens her mouth (Mouth-Open) and gives a loud Social-Trumpet. Ruby (tuskless) is streaming with Temporin.

The Rumbling continues as they move rapidly forward with Pat Derby in the lead. Pat Derby gives a loud Ear-Slap and as she turns we see that she, too, is streaming with Temporin. As they come closer to the camera we hear more and very clear Greeting-Rumbles. Ruby pauses to Urinate and we see that in addition to Temporin she has Ear-Secretion. Pat Derby comes forward and stops to Listen, then she rumbles really loudly as if in response to someone she can hear. Ruby Listens too and we think we hear a distant call - several respond. All get Temporin even the calves though the adult females are really streaming.

A minute later they meet the others and there is a loud exchange but the filmmakers had car difficulties so they couldn't follow them. We hear roaring and a social trumpet. We later see that the Greeting-Ceremony that the filmmakers missed is with Gina f0263 and others. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

This footage shows the Mabenzi family with musth male Gogogo. Gogogo is testing Trunk-to-Genitals an adolescent female who is standing next to Valente, gf0013. The adolescent female emits a loud throaty rumble and others join in in a Female-Chorus. Some elephants reach Trunk-to-Mouth to her and Marcela, g0079, moves up to her (they look alike and we believe gf0079 is her mother). There is continued calling, and gf0079 Urinates and then steps forward. Gogogo turns back a bit and is very interested in a scent on the ground. He spends a long time to Sniff-Ground while others walk past. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)