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Group of individuals clustering or bunching together with young in the center while adults face outwards toward the source of threat. Elephant may exhibit a combination of Fearful and/or Aggressive postures such as Standing-Tall, Chin-Raising, Tail-Raising, Trunk-Curved-Under. Temporin is secreted profusely. Bunching may be observed in response to any situation that is frightening or potentially dangerous whether caused by other elephants, predators (including people) or strange sounds, smells or events. Bunching is usually associated with rumbling (presumably related to a plan of action, reassurance and cementing bonds), the holding of heads high (Standing-Tall), and the swinging of bodies and trunks towards and away from nearest neighbors. Bunching may precede Retreat-From, Panic-Running or a Group-Charge. (42)