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Bow-Neck-Charge

An aggressor lowers head by bowing neck downward and simultaneously tilting head upward so that tusks are approximately horizontal. The Bow-Neck may be associated with Ear-Flapping and/or Ear-Folding. This posture is typically held at a fast walk or during a Mock-Charge and/or Real-Charge, especially when subject of charge is of smaller stature than the elephant. In a sense the aggressor brings head/tusks down to victim's level. It is one of the more common forms of high-level aggression between females of different families or toward young, pesky non-family males and may be seen as a component of a coalition. It may also be directed at predators. Is reminiscent of the "Forward Threat Display" of geese. (18)