A constellation of behaviors that are typically displayed by males in musth to advertise their heightened sexual and aggressive state. These displays have the affect of attracting female and repelling non-musth males. MORE TEXT TO COME!

References: Poole 1982; Poole 1987. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Aggressive-Whoosh, Casual-Stance, Chin-In, Ear-Folding, Ear-Wave, Ears-Stiff, Foot-Scuffing, Head-High, Head-Toss, Musth-Rumble, Musth-Temporal-Gland-Secretion, Purposeful-Walk, Rubbing, Trunk-Bounce, Trunk-Bounce-Drag, Trunk-Curl, Urine-Dribbling and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Aggressive, Courtship


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

Little Male is in musth. He is with a group with an adult female who is going into or out of estrus. He is interested in her and her urine. Other males in the background are also interested in her.

As the clip begins he walks toward us to investigate her urine. As he walks over he engages in Trunk-Curl and Trunk-Dragging and then stops to Sniff-Urine. Then he adopts a Casual-Stance and walks over to threaten us Trunk-Dragging, Musth-Rumbling, Ear-Waving and increased Urine-Dribbling. He Backs-Away doing more of the same. Then he stands Urine-Dribbling and Contemplating - Listening and sniffing.

After this pause he again comes to threaten us Trunk-Dragging, Musth-Rumbling, Ear-Waving and increased Urine-Dribbling. Again he Backs-Away Urine-Dribbling and Trunk-Curling. He sniffs his own urine drops and puts his trunk in his mouth. He stands Contemplating. Behind him we see the estrous female. Little Male hears her Urinate and turns with a Musth-Walk he walks purposefully toward her. The other males, one with an Erection, begin to Retreat-From. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (2)

Pascal arrives at a mudwallow with Wassal who he is Guarding and other elephants. A calf is in the mudwallow already and he gently moves it aside as he enters the mudwallow with a Musth-Rumble and an Ear-Wave. (Amboseli, Kenya)