An elephant Digging around, Lifting, Pushing or Pulling another elephant to assist it to stand, get up a bank, out of a river or mud-wallow or otherwise help it to overcome some physical predicament. Also observed when an elephant is incapacitated, dying or dead. All age/sex groups, except infants, may be observed attempting to Help other elephants, but this behavior is most successful among older, stronger elephants and most common among adult, adolescent and juvenile females during their care of calves.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Lee 1987; Moss 1992; Poole 1996; Kahl & Armstrong 2000; Bates et al 2008; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Lifting, Pulling, Pushing, Digging and occurs in the following context(s): Affiliative, Birth, Calf Reassurance & Protection, Social Play