Following a threat to a predator or perceived threat (e.g. Standing-Tall, Charging) an elephant or group of elephants turning and retreating from the offending animal while Head-Raising and Tail-Raising, with Ears-Stiff and Chin-Up. The animal(s) may Look-Back.

References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Ears-Stiff, Look-Back, Tail-Raising and occurs in the following context(s): Avoidance


Context: Avoidance (1)

The C family and others are out in the open and become frightened by the arrival of a vehicle. They seek safety by heading for the the forest, first Panic-Running and then slowing to a Full-Retreat. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)


Context: Avoidance (2)

The F family has heard our vehicle and are acting Apprehensive and Vigilant. gf0034 is seen with a J-Trunk, Listening, and Head-Swinging, her head raised and turning from side to side. The camera pans left to gf0033 and tuskless gf0035 who is also Listening and steps forward. Then the camera pans back to gf0033 who Ear-Slaps and Ear-Flap-Slide and Initiates-Movement for a Full-Retreat of family further from us.

Note that as gf0033 walks toward gf0035 she has an Open-Mouth indicating that she is vocalizing, but there is no audio and we are too far away. In another view again she Ear-Slaps initiating further retreat. They engage in a Full-Retreat. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)