An elephant Contact-Rumbling in association with Head-Lifting, Listening behavior, and rhythmic Ear-Flapping. A Contact-Calling sequence may include several Rumbles: A caller's initial rumble is associated with rhythmic Ear-Flapping and is followed by Listening behavior: The caller's head is held in an attentive lifted position, Head-Raising, with ears cocked, Ears-Stiff, as if waiting for a response, and as if querying, ‘I am here, where are you?’ An answering elephant typically responds with an abrupt lifting of the head and ears as if Listening and a sudden explosive Rumble seemingly stating, ‘I am over here.’ This sudden calling is often unexpected (to the human observer because the initial caller is often distant and her Rumble, therefore, inaudible to human listeners). The initial caller, upon hearing an answer, may respond with another call, often associated with a more relaxed posture, as if sending confirmation that an answer has been received. Nearby family members may also add their voice(s) to the second or third phase of the sequence, and calling back and forth may continue, intermittently, over hours until the individuals meet again.

References: Poole et al 1988; McComb et al. 2003; Poole 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Contact-Rumble, Ears-Stiff, Head-Raising, Open-Mouth and occurs in the following context(s): Movement, Space & Leadership