An elephant Standing or moving with head held well above shoulders, and, with Chin-Up and Eyes-Open looking down at her adversary over the tusks with ears maximally forward (Ear-Spreading). Standing-Tall the elephant appears to increase in size and sometimes will deliberately stand upon an object such as a log or anthill (Attain-Higher-Ground) in order to increase its height.
Elephants normally stand or move about with their eyes cast down - a direct gaze with Eyes-Open is a component of many displays. This posture is often used toward non-elephant threats, such as predators and people, as in ‘I’ve got you in my sights, so watch it.’
All age/sex groups will engage in Standing-Tall.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Poole 1982, 1987a, 1987b, 1987c, 1999a; Kahl & Armstrong 2000; Langbauer 2000; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Chin-Up, Ear-Spreading, Look-At and occurs in the following context(s): Aggressive, Conflict & Confrontation, Social Play