Among families, (typically) an adult female, who places herself on the edge of her family, between them and a perceived threat - such as a human observer - and remains attentive and engaged in Vigilant behavior, monitoring that threat. The elephant may engage in Displacement-Behaviour, half-heartedly plucking at vegetation or dusting, for example, but any movement or sound from the perceived threat results in increased vigilance and a variety of intention movements that indicate an aggressive action could follow. Musth males also Stand-Guard, monitoring the movements of rivals or human observers and taking aggressive action with any perceived transgression.
An aggressive elephant may Stand-Guard over a vehicle for what can seem like an interminable length of time!
References: Poole & Granl 2021. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Chin-Up, Displacement-Feeding, Displacement-Grooming, Ears-Stiff, Head-Swinging, J-Trunk, Look-At and occurs in the following context(s): Vigilance