Elephants, especially young males, engaging in gentle touching (e.g. Check-Tusk, Tail-Swatting, Trunk-to-Temporal-Glands, Trunk-to-Mouth) and body contact (e.g. Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth, Trunk-Twining), in a playful or greeting context, to more boisterous play (e.g. Bite-Trunk, Grasp-Leg, Grasp-Tail, Grasp-Trunk, Reach-Over, Mounting, Trunk-Push-Down,) to more rough and aggressive play (e.g. Pushing, Tusking and even Ramming). Very rough play may lead to the aggrieved male vocalising with a V-8 call. A bout of Sparring is preceded by Solicit-Sparring or Sparring-Initiation behavior.
Sparring typically occurs between males, less frequently between a male and female and rarely between two females.
References: Kühme 1961; Poole 1982: illustration 3.1; Lee 1986; Langbauer 2000; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011; O’Connell-Rodwell et al 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Advance-Toward, Back-Away, Bite-Trunk, Check-Tusk, Chin-Out, Circus-Pose, Ear-Spreading, Grasp-Leg, Grasp-Tail, Grasp-Trunk, J-Trunk, Kneel-Down, Look-At, Mounting, Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth, Penis-Erection, Periscope-Trunk, Pushing, Reach-Over, Retreat-From, Rump-Present, Run-After, Run-Away, Tail-Swatting, Touch-Self, Trunk-Push-Down, Trunk-to-Face, Trunk-to-Mouth, Trunk-Twining, Tusk-Clank, Tusking and occurs in the following context(s): Social Play