Purposeful-Walking by a lead female that aims perpendicular to, rather than directly toward, a predator or perceived threat. The head is held high or in a Bow-Neck (see Bow-Neck and Bow-Neck-Charge) posture and tilted slightly toward her adversary. This behavior is a good predictor of escalation - an Advance-Toward, Group-Advance, Charge or Group-Charge. The elephant typically Walks beyond its adversary and then pivots or Pirouettes sharply and Charges.
The Perpendicular-Walk appears to be a form of Guiding - a signal to other members of the family that a lead female is about to take an action that others should be aware of and may be called on to participate in. It is certainly a signal to the target or victim!
References: Poole & Granli 2021. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Advance-Toward, Bow-Neck, Purposeful-Walk and occurs in the following context(s): Coalition Building