A sudden cessation of all movement by an individual or group of individuals, holding stock-still, apparently Listening or perhaps feeling distant vibrations. Individuals may begin very slow moving of the head from one side to another - Head-Swinging - presumably to localise sound. When concerned about predators elephants may hold motionless, other than Head-Swinging, for a period of 5-60 seconds, when they are presumably using all of their senses to locate the source of disturbance. Freezing is most often initiated by an older member of the group. Others follow her/his lead, even if she or he might be bringing up the rear of the group.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Moss 1988; Langbauer et al. 1989; Poole & Granli 2003; O´Connell-Rodwell et al 2006; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Chin-Up, Ear-Spreading, Ears-Stiff, Head-Swinging, J-Trunk and occurs in the following context(s): Attentive, Vigilance