Female(s) responding to the sound, smell or physical presence of a musth male by Head-Raising, Rapid-Ear-Flapping and emitting Female-Chorus-Rumble(s), Trumpets and Roars. Temporin streams down the side of the face’s of adult females and several may Urinate and Rump-Present for the musth male. The male may Musth-Rumble while Ear-Waving and Urine-Dribbling as he tests the females Trunk-to-Genitals and may perform Flehmen. The females may likewise reach their trunks to sniff his genitals.

The Female-Chorus is a constellation of behaviors by a musth male and female(s).

References: Poole et al. 1988; Poole 1996: 134, 1999a, 2000; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Defecating, Ear-Wave, Flehmen, Head-Raising, Musth-Rumble, Open-Mouth, Rapid-Ear-Flapping, Roar, Rump-Present, Sniff-Dung, Sniff-Ground, Sniff-Urine, Snort, Temporin, Trunk-to-Genitals, Urinating, Urine-Dribbling, Rumble, Trumpet and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

The scene shows the Mabenzi family with musth male Gogogo, gm0001. Gogogo is testing Trunk-to-Genitals an adolescent female who is standing next to Valente, gf0013 (the one holding the stick). The adolescent female emits a loud, throaty rumble and others join in Female-Chorusing while Rapid-Ear-Flapping. Some elephants reach Trunk-to-Mouth to her and Marcela, g0079, moves up to her (they look alike and we think gf0079 is her mother).

There is continued calling, and gf0079 Urinates and then steps forward. Gogogo turns back a bit and is very interested in a scent on the ground. He spends a long time to Sniff-Ground while others walk past, mill around and also Sniff-Ground. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (2)

Rui, gm0008, a male with a missing tail, is in musth. Notice that as he walks through the group the females wait and then sniff him (Trunk-Toward) and Orient-Toward him. There is no audio, but their raised heads and Rapid-Ear-Flapping indicates that they are vocalizing to him.

A young female toward the back appears to have urinated. A female ahead reaches her Trunk-Toward him and also engages in Rapid-Ear-Flapping. They follow him. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (3)

As Pascal walks toward a family group the females and calves Orient-Toward him and Walk-Toward him, some with Periscope-Trunk. As he arrives they begin Rumbling, Head-Raising and Ear-Lifting. Later we see that one Urinates. He seems uninterested and goes to the water's edge. The family drift off. Due to the strong wind it is difficult to hear the Female-Chorus-Rumbles that they make. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Courtship (1)

Pascal is in musth and is with two estrous females. Amparo, with whom he has just Mated, is ahead of him, and Miranda is following him. Another musth male is near to Amparo. We hear and see Pascal Musth-Rumbles and Ear-Waves, perhaps as a threat to this male, or to Amparo, and Miranda immediately calls (likely Female-Chorus) overlapping with his call. We can see her Ear-Lifting and Head-Raising.

Pascal stands Listening and then adopts a Periscope-Trunk, presumably sniffing the air ahead of him. Amparo calls - we believe an Estrous-Rumble and Pascal lifts his head and Musth-Rumbles and Ear-Waves. The camera pans left in the middle of his call to reveal Amparo and Qapella calling together Tusk-Clanking and reaching Trunk-to-Mouth. We guess that this is another Estrous-Rumble or Female-Chorusing. Pascal immediately joins in, his Musth-Rumble overlapping with theirs and another closer voice is likely Miranda. Pascal walks over to Amparo to continue Guarding her. (Amboseli, Kenya)