Escalated-ContestContext: Aggressive (1)
Pascal is Guarding Qadija in estrus and there is a lot of tension between the males who are waiting for an opportunity to Mate with her. We had stopped for a quick cup of tea/coffee and were caught off guard when Upendo attacks another large adult male.
As the clip starts Pascal is heading toward us following Qadija at a fast pace. Another large male moves out of his way. Meanwhile, Upendo is heading in our direction Head-High and Ears-Folded. In the middle of this is an adolescent female who, feeling caught or anticipating something is about to happen is Rumbling loudly with an Open-Mouth. Further back someone Trumpets. Upendo bears down on the other male and they clash, Upendo forcing the other male back at least 8 steps.
There is more Rumbling and Trumpeting by a large female with a broken right tusk. The two males face one another, Heads-High, Ear-Waving and Ear-Folding. Neither one had appeared to be in musth earlier but now they both have Temporal-Gland-Secretion and are acting as if in musth. More Trumpeting and Rumbling from the female spectators who reach their trunks out toward the two males. The loud Rumbling continues and then the female who has been calling and her calves streak across the plains behind the fighting males. Then they stop and turn to watch, as if they wanted a better view. The two males face one another Heads-High and Ears-Folded. The other male Advances-Toward Upendo who Backs-Away. There is quite a bit of Backing-Away and Advancing-Toward as the two males size one another up.
A medium sized male comes into view and comes to stand between the fighting males, though just further back, watching them with Periscope-Trunk. Upendo Advances-Toward the other male and Kicks-Dust. Upendo Backs-Away about 9 paces, Ear-Folding. It seems Upendo just wanted to give himself a bit of space to attack, because then with Periscope-Trunk he Runs 8 paces at the other male and then Lunges at him forcing him back. We hear about 9 Tusk-Clanks. The losing male gives a V8-Rumble.
The family is still watching as the males pause to face one another and then the loser Runs-Away and Upendo Runs-After him. The family who had been watching run, too, Trumpeting. Then they turn to face Upendo and trumpet again. Upendo pursues the other male and everybody Runs-Away. As the camera pans to the right we see Pascal, who has also been watching. As a result of his inattention to Qadija, she is being Chased by other males. He realizes and turns to Run-After them. A young male is Reaching-Over her back and Pascal manages to catch up and the male abandons his attempt. There is a Trumpet. Note that other than the V8-Rumble all of the vocalizations are made by females. (Amboseli, Kenya)