A forceful expulsion of air through the trunk creating a short, sharp, noisy, broadband snort followed by a more tonal trumpeting sound. This is a combination call given in one exhalation. Snort-Trumpets are rarely heard, but like Snorts and Trumpets may be given during high arousal such as when when an elephant is surprised, annoyed or indignant about something, or during an event of intense social excitement. We have noted that Snorts given in these contexts may be less explosive Trumpets. If so, a Snort-Trumpet may result if the expulsion of air through the trunk is increased part way into the Snort.
References: Poole & Granli 2021. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Snort, Trumpet and occurs in the following context(s): Affiliative, Calf Reassurance & Protection, Coalition Building, Conflict & Confrontation