Within a Consort, during peak estrous, and immediately prior to Mounting, the Guarding male using his forehead to push an estrous female, from side to side and forward, while she Stands-to-Mate. May sometimes be observed by younger males in a Social Play context.

References: Eisenberg et al 1971; Poole 1999a; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Courtship, Social Play


Context: Social Play (1)

Two young males - one about 4 yrs and the other about 16 yrs. They stand head-to-head in an apparently 'cozy' scene, but the larger male is is Pushing - as if Driving and putting his tusks over the smaller one in what looks like a Reach-Over. The little one reaches Trunk-to-Mouth to the larger one. Then the older male begins Driving, reaches Trunk-to-Genitals, Reaches-Over, and then Mounts the younger male. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)