Raising the tail. The tail of a relaxed elephant hangs down. Fearful, highly playful or sexually or socially aroused elephants typically raise their tails. All age/sex groups Tail-Raise in Vigilant and Avoidance contexts; female adults, adolescents and calves Tail-Raise in Affiliative and Courtship contexts and female adults and adolescents Tail-Raise in Coalition Building contexts.

References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Moss 1988; Poole 1996: 41, 154; Poole 1999a; Payne, 1998; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Affiliative, Avoidance, Calf Reassurance & Protection, Coalition Building, Social Play, Vigilance