A vigorous scraping, ‘pawing’ or trampling of the ground with a forefoot, often churning up dust and debris. This behavior is typically seen when an elephant is conflicted and is a form of Displacement-Behavior. It has been recorded at elephant Births, when elephants feel under threat, and when elephants have killed a person.

References: Poole & Granli 2003 [Trample-Ground]. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Birth, Calf Reassurance & Protection, Conflict & Confrontation, Death, Foraging & Comfort Technique, Social Play