A medium-long slightly undulating Rumble produced by adult females when aggressively Advancing-Toward other elephants. The Rumble is associated with Ear-Folding, pronounced Ear-Flapping with audible Ear-Slaps, and is typically given toward adult females or teenage males from other families. A female seriously threatening another elephant stretches her head forward and outward in a Bow-Neck, as she Advances-Toward or Runs-After her opponent. The audible Ear-Slaps are often visible on the spectrogram.
References: Poole 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Aggressive