A shrill, short (less than a second in duration) breathy trumpet emitted when an elephant is startled, suddenly frighted or alarmed. Such trumpeting is more often emitted by younger elephants, and is linked with fearful or apprehensive postures and often associated with running.
For example, an elephant who is startled by the presence of a vehicle, or a calf who suddenly finds itself separated from care-givers, may emit a trumpet, or trumpets, with this quality. A calf or juvenile elephant who is separated from his or her family typically begins to call with a series of Separated-Rumbles. As a lost calf becomes increasingly distressed, the rumbling may escalate to shrill trumpeting or roaring.
References: Poole 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Calf Reassurance & Protection, Conflict & Confrontation