An elephant dragging and occasionally slightly bouncing the distal and outer portion of a curled trunk on the ground making a rasping sound; often leaves a continuous or intermittent snake-like mark on the ground. Musth males, particularly, may drag and bounce their trunks along the ground for long distances (3 kilometers has been observed) when Walking or Tracking another elephant; musth males and elephants of both sexes may drag their trunks on the ground as a threat at very close range.
References: Kahl & Armstrong 2002; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Aggressive, Attacking & Mobbing