An estrous female standing still ‘holding-her-ground’ (as opposed to stepping forward or moving away) or pushing back as a Guarding male Drives and/or Mounts her.

References: Jainudeen et al 1971; Moss 1983; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011 [Standing]. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Courtship


Context: Courtship (1)

Pascal is in musth and Amparo is in estrus and they are in Consort. This is the 4th day that she is in estrus and she is at her peak. At the start of the clip we see Pascal Reaching-Over her and Resting-Head on her while Amparo cooperates and shows she is ready by Backing-Toward him and Standing-to-Mate.

Notice how she stands still for him, holding her ground and not leading him on an Estrous-Walk and Chases. This behavior is typical of peak estrus. Pascal steps back and forth shifting his weight from one foot to the other as he prepares to lift himself onto his hind legs and Dram Rumbles again. Pascal mounts and appears to achieve intromission on the 5th thrust. As he enters her he raises up and we can see that Amparo appears to be lifted up by his penis - we see her Kick-Back with first one leg and then the other as she seems to be almost standing on her toes - her hind legs out-stretched. Pascal remains inside her for 29 seconds and the other males mill around them. As he begins to dismount we hear the Open-Mouth Rumbling starts in earnest - first by tuskless Dram and then Amparo begins her Open-Mouthed Estrus-Rumbling. She stands Tail-Raising and calling with temporal glands streaming. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Courtship (2)

Pascal is in musth and Qadija is in estrus. Pascal has been Guarding her all day. We have seen signs that they are about to Mate. As this clip starts Pascal with a Penis-Erection Pursues Qadija who engages in an Estrous-Walk, Looking-Back. As Pascal gets closer she slows. With an Open-Mouth Pascal Reaches-Over and she Stands-to-Mate. Pascal Mounts her and appears to achieve intromission on the 7th thrust.

Rumbling and Rumble-Roar-Rumbles by other family members can be heard. Qadija Kicks-Back at Pascal and other males gather around them reaching Trunk-Toward them. Pascal is Mounted for 25 seconds and Rumbling by family members continues. As he dismounts Qadija rushes forward and gives an Estrous-Rumble which is answered by Pascal Musth-Rumbling and then another Estrous-Rumble by Qadija who then Head-Shakes. (Amboseli, Kenya)