Reach-Over

An elephant, typically male, and usually with an erection, reaching his trunk over or along the back of another elephant. Observed in Courtship and Social Play as a prelude to Mounting. Females have been observed to Reach-Over other females as a display of dominance during the attempted kidnapping of an infant, and during a Greeting to a family member with a newborn.

References: K├╝hme 1961; Eisenberg et al 1971; Jainudeen et al 1971; Moss 1983; Moss 1988; Poole 1996; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2004; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Birth, Courtship, Social Play

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (1)

Two calves, a one year old male and a 6 month old female, belonging to the C family are playing together. The male repeatedly Reach-Over the little female attempting to Mount her. Each time an allomother intervenes as if to keep the play from becoming too rough. See Allomother-Intervention for more detail. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (2)

Two teenage males are playing together. The larger male Reach-Over the back of the younger and stands there as if he might want to Mount, but he is in the wrong position. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (3)

Two calves, a one year old male and a 6 month old female, belonging to the C family are playing together. The male repeatedly Reach-Over the little female attempting to Mount her. Each time an allomother intervenes as if to keep the play from becoming too rough. See Allomother-Intervention for more detail. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (4)

Two calves, a one year old male and a 6 month old female, belonging to the C family are playing together. The male repeatedly Reach-Over the little female attempting to Mount her. Each time an allomother intervenes as if to keep the play from becoming too rough. See Allomother-Intervention for more detail. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (5)

Two calves, a one year old male and a 6 month old female, belonging to the C family are playing together. The male repeatedly Reach-Over the little female attempting to Mount her. Each time an allomother intervenes as if to keep the play from becoming too rough. See Allomother-Intervention for more detail. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (6)

Two calves, a one year old male and a 6 month old female, belonging to the C family are playing together. The male repeatedly Reach-Over the little female attempting to Mount her. Each time an allomother intervenes as if to keep the play from becoming too rough. See Allomother-Intervention for more detail. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (7)

An 8 year old male has joined a group of younger calves playing Climb-Upon. He uses his trunk to Reach-Over first one of the younger calves and then another. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (8)

An 18 month old male calf is resting beside an adolescent female when he is approached by an 18 month old female who Reach-Over his back. They are joined by a third female calf of similar age. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (9)

Calves stand in the shade of a tree. In the foreground two are playing. A 4.5 year old female on the right Reach-Over the head of a less than 2 year old male on the left. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (10)

Allomother Lorato has been very focused on the genitals of 4 day old Little E. As the clip starts an 18 month old male calf walks past her and gets down on his knees to bite a plant. Lorato Reach-Over his back. She is Trunk-Sucking and lifts her foot as if she is contemplating Mounting him and thinks better of it. We have seen her act as if she is trying to Mount Little E and we have observed other adolescent females Mounting calves they are mothering. We are placing it under "playful" for lack of a better place to put it. No audio - the wind was terrible. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (11)

Two calves are at play. A younger male calf stretches his trunk up the back of an older female calf in an attempted Reach-Over and tries to Mount her. She steps forward. The male Pushes her and she Runs-Away, while he Runs-After her. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (12)

Two playful calves come out of the bushes. The smaller male behind lays his trunk on the larger male's rump in a Reach-Over as the larger male begins to walk away. When the larger male comes to a halt in some bushes, the smaller male rears up and Mounts him. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (13)

There are 3 adolescent/juvenile males. The male on the left with the broken leg, is gm0009. He is the oldest and was a bystander while the other two were Sparring. The smallest male, facing us, appears to become angry and overly aggressive, attacking the male with his back to us, Ramming into him and forcing him back. Then gm0009 seems to intervene and the two pause as if thinking better of the game. The male with his back to us Touch-Self. In what appears to be an act of Conciliation gm0009 touches the smallest male, who seems to Rump-Present and gm0009 leans into him and touch him Trunk-to-Genitals. Then the male with the broken hind leg Reaches-Over the male in the middle, while the male on the right engages in a Trunk-Push-Down. Then both step back and Trunk-Suck. After gm0009 appears to touch the middle male Trunk-to-Genitals. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (14)

Two adolescent males are engaged in a rough bout of Sparring in which one forces the other back. The loser turns away and stands while the winner Reach-Over his back. Notice the loser engages in Kick-Back to try to rid himself of the other male. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Social Play (15)

Two adolescent males are playing. The one behind is Pushing and Tusking the one in front. The male in front Kicks-Back at the one behind. The male in front Runs-Away while the male behind Run-After. Catching him, the pursuer Tusks him several times and forces him down, whereupon he pins him down by Stepping-On his leg! He Reaches-Over as if to mount the trapped male, but he manages to get up and away. The game begins again. (Gorongosa, Mozambique)

Reach-Over

Context: Courtship (1)

A young male Reach-Over a Mabenzi family female that he appears to be interested in. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Courtship (2)

Pascal is in musth and Amparo is in estrus and they are in Consort. This is the 4th day that she is in estrus and she is at her peak. At the start of the clip we see Pascal standing next to Amparo with a Penis-Erection. Pascal then begins a series of courtship behaviors for 2 and a half minutes: Reaching-Over her and Resting-Head on her three times and in between these gently Driving her - pushing and nudging her from side to side and reaching his Trunk-Toward her.

Meanwhile, Amparo cooperates and shows she is ready by Backing-Toward him. She Stands-to-Mate. As the other elephants realise what is about to happen they walk toward her to watch. Tuskless Dram Rumbles and Amparo joins her with an Estrous-Rumble. Dram Rumbles twice more. As Pascal circles Amparo preparing her and himself, Dram walks over to sniff Pascals penis, reaching Trunk-to-Genitals and then Rumbles again.

The tension in the group is palpable and two younger males in the background get into a Duel, Tusk-Clanking. An elephant Trumpets. Another male Runs-After them. Meanwhile Pascal steps back and forth shifting his weight from one foot to the other as he prepares to lift himself onto his hind legs and Dram Rumbles again. Pascal mounts Amparo and the clip ends. (Amboseli, Kenya)

Reach-Over

Context: Courtship (3)

Pascal is in musth and Qadija is in estrus. Pascal has been Guarding her all day. We have seen signs that they are about to Mate. As this clip starts Pascal with a Penis-Erection Pursues Qadija who engages in an Estrous-Walk, Looking-Back. As Pascal gets closer she slows. With an Open-Mouth Pascal Reaches-Over and she Stands-to-Mate. Pascal Mounts her and appears to achieve intromission on the 7th thrust. Rumbling and Rumble-Roar-Rumbles by other family members can be heard.

Qadija Kicks-Back at Pascal and other males gather around reaching Trunk-Toward them. Pascal is Mounted for 25 seconds and Rumbling by family members continues. As he dismounts Qadija rushes forward and gives an Estrous-Rumble which is answered by Pascal Musth-Rumbling and then another Estrous-Rumble by Qadija who then Head-Shakes. (Amboseli, Kenya)