Lowering of the head so that the top is below the level of the top of the shoulder blades. This posture makes an individual appear smaller and can be a persistent posture. Often given together with a Turn-Away and followed by a Retreat-From. (33) Often used by young males in the presence of a musth male. May be an appeasement gesture.
References: Eisenberg, McKay & Jainudeen 1971; Moss 1983; Poole 1987b; Moss 1988; Poole 1989a; Estes 1991; Moss 1992; Spinage 1994; Poole 1996: 146; Poole 1997; Poole & Granli 2003. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Submissive