Standing or moving with head held well above shoulders, chin tucked in (Chin-In), so that the elephant looks squarely at its adversary with ears and tusks held more perpendicular to the ground. Typically, the ears are maximally forward (Ear-Spreading). This posture is used primarily to threaten other elephants, particularly by males in musth.
References: Eisenberg, McKay & Jainudeen 1971; Poole 1982: 77 & illustration 4.7, Moss 1983; Poole 1987a; Poole 1987b; Poole 1987c; Poole 1988; Poole 1992; Poole 1996: 75, 77; Poole 1997; Poole & Granli 2003; O’Connell-Rodwell et al 2011 [Head held up]. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Aggressive, Submissive