Purposeful, directed walking with hostile intent toward another elephant(s), or toward a perceived non-elephant threat, that typically results in sumissive or avoidance behavior or counter threat. The term includes an Advance-Toward of a single step to a persistent, prolonged and highly aggressive pursuit at a fast walk. The latter often follows an Escalated-Contest when one male has signalled defeat by fleeing.
Advance-Toward may be associated with other aggressive behaviors such as Head-High, Ear-Spreading, or Ear-Folding, Ear-Slap, Ear-Waving, Bow-Neck, Kick-Dust etc.
References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972; Mkay 1973: 63, 65; Poole 1982: 129; Poole 1987a; Moss 1988; Poole 1989a; Poole 1992; Ben-Shahar 1999: 299; Poole & Granli 2003. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Aggressive, Attacking & Mobbing