Sikes, S. 1971. The Natural History of the African Elephant. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.

Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York; Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Poole, J.H. and Granli, P.K. In press. Signals, gestures and behaviors of African elephants. In: The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Moss, C.J., Croze, H.J & Lee, P.C. (Eds.) University of Chicago Press.

Kahl, M.P. & B.D. Armstrong. 2000. Visual and tactile displays in African elephants, Loxodonta africana: A progress report (1991-1997). Elephant 2 (4): p. 19-21.

Kahl, M.P. & B.D. Armstrong. 2002. Visual displays of wild African elephants during musth. Mammalia 66:159-171.

Kühme, V.W. 1963a. Ethology of the African elephant. Int. Zoo. Yearbook 4: 113-121.

Kühme, W. 1962. Ergänzende Beobachtungen an afrikanischen Elephanten (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797) im Freigehege (2.Teil). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20(1): 66-79.


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